The Haush Indians of Tierra del Fuego

Bibliography of the Haush (Manek’enk) Indians
An Indigenous People of Southeastern Tierra del Fuego, Argentina
Ethnographic Bibliographies no. 5

commons1

blue pin Landscape and environment
blue pin Prehistory
blue pin Language
blue pin Lifestyle and technology
blue pin Recent history
blue pin Bibliography


blue pinLandscape and Environment

The Haush people (manek’enk in their own language) were a Patagonian Indian tribe who formerly lived in the southeastern section of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, along the shores of the Mitre Peninsula.

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archaeology

They foraged, fished and hunted marine mammals and guanaco along a rocky, inhospitable shore in a cold, windy subantarctic environment, adapting to one of the world’s most brutal climates. They were never a numerous people, numbering perhaps 300. They are very little known, and most died out before their culture could be fully studied.

cabosyplayas

Anne Chapman noted:

“In the world today there are very few uninhabited areas which formerly had been inhabited by human beings. In Argentina there is one. The southeast of the Great Island (Isla Grande) of Tierra del Fuego, on the Atlantic coast (from Thetis bay around the tip of the island, along the Straits of Le Maire to Bay Aguirre near the entrance of Beagle Channel) has been uninhabited since the last century, when a people called the Haush “disappeared”. Some were killed by the Whites while others died of the diseases brought by them. The American Indian adapted to this zone; the European and Latin American have not been able to do so. But the former succumbed to the latter and his land became vacant. No one lives there now . Hardly anyone goes there except crews or passengers of ships which occasionally anchor in its bays. The last commercial seal hunters abandoned the region years ago.”

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“Until the nineteenth century the Haush and another group called the Ona (Selk’nam is their authentic name) shared most of the Isla Grande. Both groups had arrived from continental Patagonia: the Haush first. How many thousands of years or centuries before the Selk’nam? This is a question that only the archaeologists can answer. The Haush had probably occupied most of the island but eventually they were pushed to its southeastern tip by the Selk’nam, the more aggressive newcomers. Neither group went further south, to the coast of Beagle Channel, Navarino Island and the archipelagos to Cape Horn. All this territory, and the southern Pacific shore line was inhabited by other Indians: the Yahgan (Yámana) and the Alakaluf (Kaweshkar or Halakwúlup).” (Chapman, Anne. “Where the Seas Clash: The Land of the Ancient Haush, Tierra del Fuego.”).

The indigenous landscape was harsh and unforgiving, but still provided these people with a subsistence living. Nothofagus beech forests provided shelter, food and wood, and there were large colonies of seals and sea lions as well as herds of guanaco, which provided most of the protein needs of their diets. The Mitre Peninsula has few good harbors and bays, and this protected and isolated the Haush.

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Anne Chapman undertook an expedition through this forbidding land in the 1960s, and described the landscape:

“I came to appreciate what it must have meant to the Haush to inhabit this zone, even though, except for our .22 and matches, they were better equipped than we were, both materially and mentally. They knew every nook and cranny of the countryside and shore line and the habits of all the edible animals, and probably most of the plants. The inland area is not very inhabitable, nor was it for the Haush, who very probably kept to the coast as much as possible, though they undoubtedly went hunting the guanaco in the hinterland. It is a region of hills and valleys carpeted with some tightly knit forests, others are more open but swampy. Most of the forest ground is matted with rotting vegetation overlaid by fallen trees, thickly padded bushes and cut through by streams and waterfalls. However there are expanses of open terrain thick with reeds and high grass and some wide stretches of rolling moorland, which are usually covered with peat-bogs. While much of the coast is lined with cliffs or boulders which plunge directly into the sea, there are sandy, sheltered beaches, such as Good Success and Valentine bays where the Haush met the early navigators. On the shores of the latter we did find a few fragments of stone and bone utensils, probably left there by the Haush.”

Selknam hunters


blue pinPrehistory

Human occupation of Tierra del Fuego is very ancient. Currently, it is believed that people began settling the archipelago within 1,000 years of humans entering the Americas. The Haush may have been among the first people to live in this harsh land. They have probably lived in the same locations for hundreds of generations.

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Most authorities believe that the Haush preceded the Selk’nam to the Grand Island of Tierra del Fuego, and were probably driven to the far southeast of the island by the Selk’nam. Relations between the two groups were often hostile, but by the 20th century the two groups began to converge under pressures from the White invaders.

Physically, the Haush were tall and striking, rather similar to the Selk’nam, and were quite different than the shorter Yamana to their west. They probably migrated down the east side of the continent, unlike the “canoe people” of the western side of the continent.


blue pinLanguage

The Haush language is related to the Selk’nam, Gününa Yajich, Teushen, and Tehuelche languages, which collectively belong to the Chonan language family. The Haush name for themselves was manek’enk. Haush and Selk’nam were not mutually intelligible.

Charles Furlong (The Haush and Onas: Primitive Tribes of Tierra del Fuego. Washington, DC: 1917) made the following observations:

language


blue pinLifeways, ceremonies and technology

Much of what we know about the Haush has been extrapolated from the lives of their close neighbors, the Selk’nam. Many of their lifeways and traditions overlapped. However, it is clear that the Haush were a distinct people, probably representing a remnant population who preceded Selk’nam settlement of Tierra del Fuego.

According to Chapman, Selk’nam and Haush society was divided into categories: the tribe (the “skies,” called sho’on ), the kindred (sóker), the localized territorial lineage (haruwin), and finally the polygamous or extended family (aksa) that lived together in one or two huts. There were 11 Haush lineages.

The Haush were apparently not a sea-going people, unlike their neighbors to the west. It is not clear if they were the people who ventured over to Isla de los Estados, which was just to the east of their territory.

homte

Their ceremonial life was rich and complex, involving elements of dramatic theater. The most important ritual was the hain, a coming-of-age celebration. Other celebrations included ritualized gift exchange called peshere. Chapman describes this festive occasion:

“An entirely different form of redistribution took place during a ceremony called peshere, which was undoubtedly Haush. Lola participated in one near the beginning of the twentieth century when she was camping with her first husband who was Haush. It was then that she heard the chant which she recorded for me so many decades later. During this ritual or ceremony, the shamans met to test and compete with one another performing various ordeals that they accomplished in a state of trance, by chanting with intense concentration. One of the shamans’ ordeals consisted in walking barefoot over burning coals, which the Selk’nam never practiced, in so far as is known.”

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“The entire local community, including the women and children, participated in the ceremony, particularly during the finale which delighted everyone. By then various sorts of belongings had been brought to the enclosure where the rituals were taking place; guanaco capes, baskets and almost any sort of ordinary item. When the shamans had terminated their performances, including the ordeals, the attending public felt permeated with great excitement, a sort of frenzy, caused of the atmosphere created by the shamans, in the closed quarters where they had all gathered. At a given moment the adults, including the shamans, began throwing the goods at one another, probably aiming at certain men or their wives. This was done in a cheerful, even hilarious atmosphere, everyone having great fun. A “gift” received would be thrown on to someone else. Some kept the “gifts” for which they may or may not have had use, others were not picked up by anyone and were left in the enclosure to rot. This is admittedly an unusual form of redistribution, as the objects were not destined to benefit anyone in particular, although some may have been offered to certain persons, and in this sense it recalls the extravagant Potlatches of the Indians of the northwest coast of Canada.”

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The figure on the right is the shaman Teninisk, photographed in 1923 by Fr. Gusinde. According to E. Lucas Bridges:

“The most important member of the Haush after Kaushel, was the healer Teninisk. He had passed through Estancia Haberton several times in previous years, in the company of some Haush, as he was half Haush. He had a considerable influence on the scattered members of these border tribes. Athletic, broad shouldered although small, Tininisk was about a meter and half tall. His eagle eye, his receding forehead and beaked nose made him look bird of prey, but that was hardly so, as he was a kind and reasonable man. Over twenty years of contact, I found him always quiet and well disposed. In recent years, when we were already greater friends, I flattered him by jokingly telling him that he must have a crow or an eagle among his ancestors.”

“The woman who Tininisk called Leluwhachin, was well educated and friendly. She was the only one woman I know to whom magical powers were attributed, although many Yaganes women were considered witches. She originally belonged to an elusive clan wandering between the mountain ranges behind Haberton and Ushuaia, and enjoyed a very bad reputation among its neighbors to the east and north”

“I asked Tininisk if he could not explain the origin of their magical powers. From his ambiguous statements I took the conclusion that the moon was in a way conducive to these things. It was possible for a healer to contact spirits out of reach of common mortals and even see things that were happening far away. I learned that the power of the witches was not constant; sometimes very strong and at other times almost nil.”


blue pinRecent history

According to Lucas Bridges, he was visited occasionally by small groups of Haush while ranching in Haberton, and learned some of their language. He found that the Haush greatly feared their Selk’nam and Yamana neighbors, and concluded that the Haush had been driven to their inhospitable corner of the island in the last few generations, living in the bleak forests and swamps. He found the Selk’nam and Haush languages to be quite different.

Western mariners began rounding Cape Horn in the early 16th century, and there were a steady stream of ships passing by the Haush homeland from that point onwards. The Haush were encountered by Capt. James Cook, and Charles Darwin wrote a vivid description of meeting the Haush in his diary of 18 Dec. 1832, while HMS Beagle was anchored in Bahia Buen Suceso. The Haush lit large fires on shore, and as the ship passed “waving their cloaks of skin sent forth a loud sonorous shout…these people followed the ship up the harbor, and just before dark we again heard their cry.” The next day Capt. Fitzroy sent his men to communicate with the Haush. Darwin wrote: “It was without a doubt the most curious and interesting spectacle I have ever beheld.” Coming from Darwin, that was quite a statement.

darwin

Tierra del Fuego was settled by colonists rather late in the 19th century, and at that point the fate of all of the local indigenous peoples was sealed. Epidemics swept through the area, and the cultures were disrupted by misguided missionary efforts by English evangelists. More profoundly, sheep ranches were set up by British companies after about 1880, and the Selk’nam in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego were ruthlessly hunted to extinction in the Selk’nam genocide. Population fell from about 4,000 to a few hundred in about a decade. The details of the genocide are fairly well-known, and graphic photographs actually exist of human hunting parties led by the Romanian engineer Julius Popper. The atrocities eventually became an international scandal, but the hunting continued in secret into the 20th century.

It is uncertain how this genocide affected the more remote Haush population, but this small population became effectively extinct by the 1920s. After the genocide, the Haush and Selk’nam survivors congregated together around Lake Fagnano, in the south of the Grand Island of Tierra del Fuego. At that point, the two peoples had effectively merged, and this has made distinguishing between the two cultures and languages difficult.

The final blow to the Haush and Selk’nam was an epidemic of measles in the 1920s, which effectively eliminated the remaining populations. The last hain ceremony was held in 1923, late enough to be recorded on film by Fr. Gusinde.

The striking images below are from that last hain ceremony from 1923:

hain5

hain2Three Selk’nam women at the 1923 hain. Angela Loij in the center is painted with the whale symbol of the north sky, her lineage.

hain3

hain4


Bibliography

The principal chroniclers of Haush and Selk’nam life ways were the German priest Father Martin Gusinde, who created a remarkable visual record of Selk’nam life ways on the verge of extinction; Lucas Bridges, the distinguished author, explorer, and rancher; and Anne Chapman, at a much later date. Chapman’s online materials can be found at the website of the Reed Foundation.

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This bibliography includes the few materials specific to the Haush, as well as research on their neighbors the Selk’nam and the other peoples of Tierra del Fuego.

blue pin Bird, Junius B. “Antiquity and Migrations of the Early Inhabitants of Patagonia.” Geographical Review 28 (1938): 250–275. Print.

blue pin Borrero, Luis. “Comentarios: Los cazadores orientales de Tierra del Fuego.” Los cazadores-recolectores del extremo oriental Fueguino: Arqueología de Península Mitre e Isla de los Estados. Ed. Atilio F. Zangrando, Martín Vázquez, and Augusto Tessone. Buenos Aires: Sociedad Argentina de Antropología, 2011. 287-299. Print, Web.

blue pin Borrero, Luis. “The Extermination of the Selk’nam.” Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research. Ed. Ernest S. Burch and Linda J. Ellanna. Oxford: Berg, 1994. 247-261. Print.

blue pin Bridges, E. Lucas. Uttermost Part of the Earth. New York: Dutton, 1949. Print.

“Rapturous praise met the publication of Lucas Bridges’ marvelous chronicle of Tierra del Fuego when it first came out in 1947, and that praise has hardly abated these past sixty years, nor has a book been written which supplants Uttermost Part of the Earth as the classic work on Tierra del Fuego and the little-known culture of the now-extinct Fuegian Indians.

When the author was born in Tierra del Fuego in 1874, it was truly an unknown land. On the southern coast was the small settlement established by his missionary parents; the rest of it, over 18,000 square miles of mountain, forest, marsh, and lake, was the hunting ground of fierce and hostile tribes. Bridges grew up amongst the coastal Yaghans, learning their language and their ways. In young manhood he made contact with the wild inland Ona tribe, became their friend and hunting companion, and was initiated into the men’s lodge.

Surely the New York Times’ critics’s prediction for this book on its first publication has come true: “I have no doubt that Uttermost Part of the Earth will achieve a permanent place in the literature of several subjects: adventure, anthropology, and frontier history.” Indeed it is still the essential work and indispensable introduction for anyone yearning to experience the breathtaking remoteness and stunning landscapes of this far-flung wilderness at the “uttermost part of the earth.”

blue pin Briones, Claudia, and José L. Lanata, ed. Archaeological and Anthropological Perspectives on the Native Peoples of Pampa, Patagonia, and Tierra Del Fuego to the Nineteenth Century. Westport: Bergin & Garvey, 2002. Print.

“The Spanish conquerors who explored the southern cone of South America reported back to Europe that the region was empty of human inhabitants. In truth, however, the large area supported a thriving, albeit low-density, population of foragers. Those foragers—the Mapuche, Tehuelche, Rankuelche, and Fueguian peoples—are the subject of this volume, which presents archaeological and ethnographic studies of their past.

The southern cone of South America was one of the last regions to be colonized on earth. When the Spanish Royal Crown experienced difficulties expanding its colonial frontiers to include these lands, the area became known as a vast wildnerness at the very edge of the civilized world. As a result, the native peoples who did indeed inhabit the area were marginalized and as time passed the significance of their historical experience was ignored. This compilation of research by noted scholars of the region investigates the past of peoples largely neglected by the historical accounts of their conquerors. The history of the native peoples of Pampa, Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego is a vital aspect of the region’s past. Their historical knowledge and experience play a vital role in the struggle of a people to maintain a sense of cultural difference in an ever-changing world.”

blue pin Canclini, Arnoldo. The Fuegian Indians: Their Life, Habits, and History. Buenos Aires: Editorial Dunken, 2007. Print.

blue pin Chapman Anne MacKaye. Hain: Selk’nam Initiation Ceremony. Santiago: Taller Experimental Cuerpos Pintados, 2002. Print.

“This book is an account and interpretation of the Hain, the principal ceremony of the Selknam, a now extinct people who inhabited the southernmost region of Patagonia at the tip of South America. In this isolated, cold and inhospitable territory, the Selknam practised a surprising body painting related to this ceremony. The Selknam were a nomadic people organised in small family groups who lived from guanaco hunting. They met in large numbers on certain occasions, such as the initiation of adolescents or to take leave of the dead. The drama of their extinction, the result of White colonisation, began in 1880. Foreign diseases and the activities of guards or bounty hunters were among the causes of their irreversible demise. Hain deals with the spectacular initiation ceremony of Selknam male adolescents. Through an intense physical and spiritual training, they learned the secrets and traditions of their people from their elders. The author recounts and interprets the Hain of 1923, one of the last to be held, at a time when the Selknam were already almost extinct. It was recorded in astonishing texts and photographs by the German anthropologist Father Martin Gusinde.”

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye, and Thomas R. Hester.New Data on the Archaeology of the Haush, Tierra del Fuego.” Journal de la Société des Amérianistes 62 (1973): 185-208. Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye.Economía y estructura social de la sociedad Selk’nam (Tierra del Fuego).Culturas indígenas de la Patagonia (1990): 171-199. Print.

blue pin Chapman Anne MacKaye. “The Great Ceremonies of the Selk’nam and the Yamana: A Comparative Analysis.” Patagonia: Natural History, Prehistory, and Ethnography at the Uttermost End of the Earth. Ed. Colin McEwan, Luis A. Borrero, and Alfredo Prieto. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. 82-109. Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye.Lola: The End of a World.Natural History 80.3 (1971): 32-41. Print, Web.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye. “Llanto por los indios de Tierra del Fuego.” Journal de la Société des Américanistes 62.2 (1973): 235-236. Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye.Where the Seas Clash: The Land of the Ancient Haush, Tierra del Fuego.” Karukinka Cuadernos Fueguinos 3-5 (1973). Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye. La Isla de los Estados en la prehistoria: Primeros datos arqueológicos. Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1987. Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye, and Lola Kiepja. Selk’nam (Ona) Chants of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Folkways Records, 1972. Sound recording.

“These records comprise 47 chants sung by the last true Indian of the Selk’nam (Ona) group, Lola Kiepja. The Selk’nam had no musical instruments. These chants are sung without any sort of accompaniment.”

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye.Economía y estructura social de la sociedad Selk’nam (Tierra del Fuego).” Culturas indígenas de la Patagonia (1990): 171-199. Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye. Drama and Power in a Hunting Society: The Selk’nam of Tierra del Fuego. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982. Print.

“A fine book about the Selk’nam (also called the Onas), one of the four indigenous groups of the island of Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of the American continent. The other three groups were the Yahgan (also called the Yamanas), the Alacaluf and the Haush. Chapman estimates that before European settlement in the 1880s, there were about 11,000 people of these four tribes in Tierra del Fuego, a considerable population for hunter gatherers in a relatively small region. The indigenous population declined dramatically after white settlement – dying because of epidemics but also because of outright genocide; their history is sadly similar to that of the aboriginal Tasmanians. Today, only a handful survive. In particular, no pure Selk’nam lives today. Their race has passed. Author Chapman was able to interview a few aging Selk’nam during the 1960s, and the interviews are the basis of the book. The core of the book deals with the hain, an elaborate initiation ceremony for the young men of the tribe that was also part performance, as the many spirits of their religion were represented by the men: in some ways, the Selk’nam are probably the only Amerindians to have a native theater tradition.”

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye. End of a World: The Selk’nam of Tierra Del Fuego. Santiago, Chile: Taller Experimental Cuerpos Pintados, 2002. Print.

“This volume deals with the traditions of the Selknam and the personal relations of the author with her informants. The Selknam now are an extinct people that inhabited the main island of Tierra del Fuego, at the far end of South America. In the midst of this isolated, frigid and inhospitable country, they developed a nomadic life organized in small family groups or lineages that depended mainly on hunting the guanaco. Occasionally they gathered to bid farewell to their dead or to celebrate the remarkable Hain initiation ceremony. From 1880 onward, European colonization accelerated the tragic process of their extinction. Diseases from abroad as well as Indian hunters and vigilante groups were the main factors leading to their demise.”

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye. La Isla de los Estados en la prehistoria: Primeros datos arqueológicos. Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1987. Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye. Los Selk’nam: La vida de los Onas. Buenos Aires: Emecé Editores, 1985. Print.

blue pin Chapman, Anne MacKaye. Los Onas (1967). YouTube.

blue pin Cooper, John M. Analytical and Critical Bibliography of the Tribes of Tierra Del Fuego and Adjacent Territory. Washington: GPO, 1917. Print.

blue pin Díaz, Erwin Domínguez. “Flora de interés etnobotánico usada por los pueblos originarios: Aónikenk, Selk’nam, Kawésqar, Yagan y Haush en la Patagonia Austral.” Dominguezia 26.2 (2010): 19-29. Print.

blue pin Furlong, Charles Wellington. “Tribal Distribution and Settlements of the Fuegians, Comprising Nomenclature, Etymology, Philology, and Populations.” Geographical Review 3.3 (Mar. 1917): 169-187. Print.

blue pin Furlong, Charles Wellington. The Haush and Onas: Primitive Tribes of Tierra del Fuego. Washington, DC: 1917. Print.

blue pin Gallardo, Carlos R. Tierra del Fuego: Los Onas. Buenos Aires: Caubaut y Cía, 1910. Print.

blue pin García, Miguel Peyró. “La desaparición de las lenguas de la Patagonia.” América Latina: Realidades diversas. Ed. Laura Mameli and Eleonora Muntañola. Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona – Casa Amèrica Catalunya, 2005. 317-327. Print.

blue pin Gusinde, Martin. Folk Literature of the Selknam Indians: Martin Gusinde’s Collection of Selknam Narratives. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, University of California, 1975. Print.

blue pin Gusinde, Martin. Los Indios de Tierra del Fuego: Resultado de mis cuatro expediciones en los años 1918 a 1924, organizadas bajo las auspicios de Ministerio de Instruccioń Pública de Chile, en tres tomos. Buenos Aires: Centro Argentino de Etnología Americana, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1982. Print.

blue pin Gusinde, Martin. The Lost Tribes of Tierra Del Fuego: Selk’nam, Yamana, Kawšqar. Thames & Hudson, 2015. Print.

“A German missionary sent to Tierra del Fuego in 1919 by his congregation, Martin Gusinde was a major Americanist and ethnographer from the first half of the twentieth century. While his mission was ostensibly to convert the native peoples among whom he lived, Gusinde did just the opposite, eventually becoming one of the first Westerners ever to be initiated into the various sacred rites of the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego. In the course of four sojourns made between 1919 and 1924, from the canals of Western Patagonia to the great island of Tierra del Fuego, he learned and wrote about the Kawésqar, Yamana, and Selk’nam peoples. Gradually, the missionary became an anthropologist.

Fascinated by what he saw, Gusinde took more than one thousand photographs, all produced using a portable darkroom. Gusinde captured some truly extraordinary images that his contemporaries were unable to: feather-clad bodies sporting high headdresses made of bark, wrapped up in guanaco furs, or entirely covered with ritual paint, populating a landscape battered by wind, rain, and snow—the heart of a natural world that Darwin had celebrated, not long before, for its wildness. A dazzling visual experience, Gusinde’s photographs are a monument to the memory of the Tierra del Fuego people as well as an exceptional anthropological document.”

blue pin Horwitz, Victoria D. “Maritime Settlement Patterns in Southeastern Tierra del Fuego (Argentina).” Diss. U of Kentucky, Lexington, 1990. Print.

blue pin Horwitz, Victoria D. “Maritime Settlement Patterns: The Case from Isla de los Estados (Staaten Island).” Explotación de Recursos Faunísticos en Sistemas Adaptativos Americanos. Arqueología Contemporánea, Buenos Aires 4 (1993): 149-161. Print.

blue pin Kiepja, Lola. “Lola Kiepja Selk’nam (Ona) Chants of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (1972).” YouTube.

blue pin “Los Haush.” Habitantes del confín del mundo. Santiago: Museo de Arte Precolombino Nacional, 1987. Print.

blue pin Lanata, J. L. “The Haush Puzzle: Piecing Together Subsistence and Settlement Patterns in the Fuegian Southeast.” Revista do Museu Paulista (1997).

blue pin Levin, Lucca. “The Selk’nam.” Web.

blue pin Los cazadores-recolectores del extremo oriental Fueguino: Arqueología de Península Mitre e Isla de los Estados. Ed. Atilio F. Zangrando, Martín Vázquez, and Augusto Tessone. Buenos Aires: Sociedad Argentina de Antropología, 2011. Print.

blue pin La Isla de los Estados en la prehistoria: Primeros datos arqueológicos. Ed. Ann Mackaye Chapman. Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1987. Print.

blue pin Lothrop, Samuel K. “The Haush.” The Indians of Tierra del Fuego: An Account of the Ona, Yahgan, Alacaluf and Haush Natives of the Fuegian Archipelago. New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1928. 106-110. Print.

“An account of the Ona, Yahgan, Alacaluf and Haush natives of the Fuegian Archipelago… This highly illustrative book is the result of an expedition to Tierra del Fuego, where the author made his research with the collaboration of the Bridges and Lawrence families, the first white settlers in the Island.”

blue pin Mansur, María Estela, and Raquel Piqué. “Between the Forest and the Sea: Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in the Subantarctic Forests in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.” Arctic Anthropology 46.1-2 (2009): 144-157. Print.

blue pin Map of Tierra Del Fuego, Showing Some Ona, Yahgan, and Haush Settlement Sites Definitely Located by the Furlong Expedition of 1907-08 and 1910. New York: The American Geographical Society, 1917.

blue pin Martinic, Mateo. “The Meeting of Two Cultures: Indians and Colonists in the Magellan Region.” Patagonia: Natural History, Prehistory, and Ethnography at the Uttermost End of the Earth. Ed. Colin McEwan, Luis A. Borrero, and Alfredo Prieto. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. 110-126. Print.

blue pin Massone, M. Mauricio. “100.400 años de colonización humana en Tierra del Fuego.” ENAP Magallanes 3.14 (1983): 24-32. Print.

blue pin Massone, M. Mauricio. “Los cazadores paleoindios de Tres Arroyos (Tierra del Fuego).” Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia 17 (1987): 47-60. Print.

blue pin Massone, M. Mauricio. Perpectiva arqueológica de los Selk’nam. Punta Arenas, Chile: Universidad de Magallanes, 1992.

blue pin McEwan, Colin, Luis A. Borrero, and Alfredo Prieto. Patagonia: Natural History, Prehistory, and Ethnography at the Uttermost End of the Earth. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. Print.

“Some fourteen to ten thousand years ago, as ice-caps shrank and glaciers retreated, the first bands of hunter-gatherers began to colonize the continental extremity of South America–“the uttermost end of the earth.” Their arrival marked the culmination of humankind’s epic journey to people the globe. Now they are extinct. This book tells their story.

The book describes how these intrepid nomads confronted a hostile climate every bit as forbidding as ice-age Europe as they penetrated and settled the wilds of Fuego-Patagonia. Much later, sixteenth-century European voyagers encountered their descendants: the Aünikenk (southern Tehuelche), Selk’nam (Ona), Yámana (Yahgan), and Kawashekar (Alacaluf), living, as the Europeans saw it, in a state of savagery. The first contacts led to tales of a race of giants and, ever since, Patagonia has exerted a special hold on the European imagination. Tragically, by the mid-twentieth century, the last remnants of the indigenous way of life had disappeared forever. The essays in this volume trace a largely unwritten history of human adaptation, survival, and eventual extinction. Accompanied by 110 striking photographs, they are published to accompany a major exhibition on Fuego-Patagonia at the Museum of Mankind, London.”

blue pin Muñoz, A. Sebastián, and Juan Bautista Belardi. “Nueva información sobre viejos datos: Arqueología del norte de Península Mitre.” Los cazadores-recolectores del extremo oriental Fueguino: Arqueología de Península Mitre e Isla de los Estados. Ed. Atilio F. Zangrando, Martín Vázquez, and Augusto Tessone. Buenos Aires : Sociedad Argentina de Antropología, 2011. 171-202. Print, Web.

blue pin Neves, W. A., M. Blum, and L. Kozameh. “Fuegian Cranial Morphology: The Haush.” Ciencia e Cultura 53.2 (2001): 69-71. Print.

blue pin Orquera, Luis Abel. “The Late XIX Century Crisis in the Survival of Magellan-Fuegian Littoral Natives.” Archaeological and Anthropological Perspectives on the Native Peoples of Pampa, Patagonia, and Tierra Del Fuego to the Nineteenth Century. Ed. Jose Luis Lanata and Claudia Briones. Westport: Bergin & Garvey, 2002. 145–158. Print.

blue pinPanarello, Héctor, et al. “Análisis comparativo de paleodietas humanas entre la región del canal Beagle y Península Mitre: perspectivas desde los isótopos estables.” Magallania 34.2 (2006 ): 37–46. print.

blue pin Ponce, Juan Federico, and Marilén Fernandez. “Chapter 10: Archaeology.” Climatic and Environmental History of Isla de los Estados, Argentina. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014. 117-128. Print.

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